Navajo Nation Bill of Rights
I. Other rights not impaired; deletion or abridgment only by public
The enumeration herein of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny
or disparage others retained by the people. No provision of this chapter,
the Navajo Nation Bill of Rights, shall be abridged or deleted by amendment
or otherwise, except by referendum vote of the Navajo electorate, in accordance
with applicable provisions of the laws of the Navajo Nation.
2. Equality of rights not abridged by entitlements, benefits or privileges;
nor by affirmative action necessary to support rights of the Navajo People
to economic opportunity.
Recognition, enactment, lawful implementation and enforcement of provisions
for specific entitlements, benefits, and privileges based upon membership
in the Navajo Nation or in other recognized Tribes of Indians and affirmative
action in support of Navajo or other Indian preference in employment and
business contracting or otherwise necessary to protect and support the
rights of Navajo People to economic opportunity within the jurisdiction
of the Navajo Nation, shall not be abridged by any provision herein nor
otherwise be denied.
3. Denial or abridgment of rights on basis of sex; equal protection
and due process of Navajo Nation law.
Life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness are recognized as fundamental
individual rights of all human beings. Equality of rights under the law
shall not be denied or abridged by the Navajo Nation on account of sex
nor shall any person within its jurisdiction be denied equal protection
in accordance with the laws of the Navajo Nation, nor be deprived of life,
liberty or property, without due process of law. Nor shall such rights
be deprived by any bill of attainder or ex post facto law.
4. Freedom of religion, speech, press, and the right of assembly and
The Navajo Nation Council shall make no law respecting an establishment
of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the
freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of people peaceably to
assemble, and to petition the Navajo Nation government for a redress of
5. Search and seizures.
The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers,
and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be
violated, and no warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported
by oath, or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched,
and the persons or things to be seized.
6. Right to keep and bear arms.
The right of the people to keep and bear arms for peaceful purposes, and
in a manner which does not breach or threaten the peace or unlawfully
damage or destroy or otherwise infringe upon the property rights of others,
shall not be infringed.
7. Rights of accused; trial by jury; right to counsel.
In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy
and public trial, and shall be informed of the nature and cause of the
accusations; shall be confronted with the witnesses against him or her;
and shall have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in their favor.
No person accused of an offense punishable by imprisonment and no party
to a civil action at law, as provided under 7 NNC 651 shall be denied
the right, upon request, to a trial by jury of not less than six (6) persons;
nor shall any person be denied the right to have the assistance of counsel,
at their own expense, and to have defense counsel appointed in accordance
with the rules of the courts of the Navajo Nation upon satisfactory proof
to the court of their inability to provide for their own counsel for the
defense of any punishable offense under the laws of the Navajo Nation.
8. Double jeopardy; se1f-incrimination; deprivation of property.
No person shall be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy
of liberty, or property; nor be compelled in any criminal case to be a
witness against themselves; nor shall private property be taken nor its
lawful private use be impaired for public or governmental purposes or
use, without just compensation.
9. Cruel and unusual punishment; excessive bail and fines.
Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor
cruel and unusual punishment inflicted.
From: Navajo Nation Government, Fourth Edition, Office of Navajo
Government Development, Window Rock, Navajo Nation.
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